Physical Background

Modern physics


The laws of physics, which explain the behavior of all objects that surround us were developed hundreds of years ago. We summarize them under the term classical physics.

Everything that surrounds us is made up of small building blocks, the atoms. These, in turn, consist of even smaller particles such as electrons, protons or neutrons. In the last century, researchers discovered that some of the laws of classical physics no longer apply physics no longer apply when considering such particles. They therefore developed new laws: The Quantum physics was born.

The laws of quantum physics are less easy to understand than the laws of classical physics. than the laws of classical physics - they often seem to contradict our everyday experience and common sense. common sense. In order to be able to explain quantum physical properties and phenomena nevertheless vividly we make do with models, i.e. with comparative ideas to what we know and understand. understand. For example, we imagine electrons as small spheres in order to make them vivid and understandable, even if this is not quite the case. even if this does not quite correspond to reality: on the basis of the model, in this case of our bead conception, one can correctly predict most observations, also in quantum physics. The current research assumes, however, that electrons in reality have no expansion at all, that their diameter is exactly zero. diameter is exactly zero. Therefore, we can keep our idea of the sphere, but we have to remind ourselves now and then that but we have to remind ourselves from time to time that reality is a bit more complicated than our model.


The phenomenon that gave quantum physics its name is quantization: In the study of microscopic systems, physicists discovered that many measurable quantities can only assume very specific values. can take on. For example, electrons bound to an atomic nucleus can only assume certain energy values. values.

Wave-particle duality

Another central insight of quantum physics is the wave-particle duality. In experiments with light, it was found that it has properties of both waves and particles: light propagates in space like propagates like water waves in space and can be strengthened or weakened by superposition of wave crests and troughs. weakened by the superposition of wave crests and troughs. At the same time, however, it is also possible to detect light particles that are not distributed over space, but are only found at a certain place at a certain time. These light particles are called photons. Also with other quantum objects (electrons, atoms, molecules, etc.) one could prove the wave-particle duality.


Magnetism and magnetism-based technologies in the 21st century

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